Just flowers?

The weed, marihuana, cannabis, etc., as we may have heard before, comes from a plant: Cannabis Sativa L. Its considered one of the most ancient plants cultivated and exploited by humanity with its origins in Central Asia; currently Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and Siberia, around the Pleistocene, million years ago.[1]

By nature, this plant is rich in cannabinoids. There are more than 100 different and each one could have its effect. THC, for example, is currently best known for its psychoactive effects. However, non-psychoactive CBD, CBC, and CBG exhibit antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties, among others. [2] [3] This is why multiple ethnic groups, communities, and nations have used it, with records from 2350 BC in Egypt to 1800 in India. [4] [3] As soon as they interact with our endocannabinoid system these effects are released. [3] [5]

Endocannabinoid?

The endocannabinoid system includes a complex network of endocannabinoids, receptors, and enzymes distributed in the body, whose function is the biosynthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids. Later it ends up interacting with the inhibition or segregation of neurotransmitters, affecting neurologically and physiologically levels. Some functions that can be stimulated are reproductive, immune, and gastrointestinal.  [6]

So... Everything is cannabinoids related?

Although cannabinoids does play crucial roles in the body, other components naturally co-exist in the plant; such as terpenes, flavonoids, and flavones. Their presence can also enhace or interact in different ways with cannabinoids in the body. [2]

Then, terpenes, flavonoids y flavones...

Rather than cannabinoids, the plant’s kingdom is rich in terpenes. They’re responsible for cannabis’s unique aroma. Myrcene, for example, is widely found in lemongrass and has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic properties, among others. Others present are limonene; in citrus peels, much studied, and pinene; in pine resin. [2]

Regarding flavonoids, more than 20 have been registered in this plant. Some can modulate THC pharmacokinetics with CBD shared mechanisms. Apigenin, a flavone present in cannabis, is also chamomile’s anxiolytic primary agent, as this group representative.[2]

Psychoactive or not?

There’s a notorious difference between psychoactive and non-psychoactive cannabis. Nevertheless, we shouldn’t believe that is a synonym of recreative and medical. For an example, the THC, psychoactive, also possesses huge analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, and its used to fight nausea and vomit symptoms because chemotherapies against cancer or cachexia in patient with aids. [2] [3]